Numbers 2 – Arrangement of Encampment and Order of Travel

On the east side of the tabernacle toward the rising of the sun shall be the camp of Judah
Captain of the children of Judah: Nahshon the son of Amminadab

His host were numbered 74,600.

Next to Judah shall be the tribe of Issachar.

Captain of the children of Issachar: Nethaneel the son of Zuar

His host were numbered 54,400.

Then the tribe of Zebulun:

Captain of the children of Zebulun: Eliab the son of Helon

His host were numbered 57,400.

All that were numbered in the camp of Judah were 186,400 throughout their armies.

When the camp moves, these shall set forth first.

On the south side shall be the camp of Reuben.

Captain of the children of Reuben shall be Elizur the son of Shedeur.

His host were numbered 46,500.

Those which pitch by him shall be the tribe of Simeon

Captain of the children of Simeon shall be Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai.

His host were numbered 59,300.

Then the tribe of Gad.

Captain of the sons of Gad shall be Eliasaph the son of Reuel.

And his host were numbered 45,650.

All that were numbered in the camp of Reuben were 151,450.

And they shall set forth in the second rank.

Then the tabernacle of the congregation shall set forward with the camp of the Levites in the middle of the camp: as they encamp, so shall they set forward.

On the west side shall be the camp of Ephraim.

Captain of the sons of Ephraim shall be Elishama the son of Ammihud.

His host were numbered 40,500.

By him shall be the tribe of Manasseh.

Captain of the children of Manasseh shall be Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur.

His host were numbered 32,200.

Then the tribe of Benjamin:

Captain of the sons of Benjamin shall be Abidan the son of Gideoni.

His host were numbered 35,400.

All that were numbered of the camp of Ephraim were 108,100. And they shall go forward in the third rank.

The camp of Dan shall be on the north side.

Captain of the children of Dan shall be Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai.

His host were numbered 62,700.

Those that encamp by him shall be the tribe of Asher.

Captain of the children of Asher shall be Pagiel the son of Ocran.

His host were numbered 41,500.

Then the tribe of Naphtali.

Captain of the children of Naphtali shall be Ahira the son of Enan.

His host were numbered 53,400.

All they that were numbered in the camp of Dan were 157,600.

They shall go hindmost.

These are those which were numbered of the children of Israel by the house of their fathers. All those that were numbered of the camps throughout their hosts were 603,550. But the Levites were not numbered among the children of Israel; as the Lord commanded Moses.

The children of Israel did according to all that the Lord commanded Moses: so they encamped and set forward, every one after their families, according to the house of their fathers.


Numbers 1 – A Census

When: On the first day of the second month, in the second year after they came out of the land of Egypt. 

Where: In the wilderness of Sinai, in the tabernacle of the congregation

The Lord (to Moses):

Take a census of the children of Israel, after their families, by the house of their fathers. Count every male from twenty years old and upward, all that are able to go forth to war in Israel. You and Aaron shall number them by their armies. And take with you the man of every tribe who is the head of the house of his fathers.

And these are the names of the men that shall stand with you:

Of the tribe of Reuben; Elizur the son of Shedeur.

Of Simeon; Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai.

Of Judah; Nahshon the son of Amminadab.

Of Issachar; Nethaneel the son of Zuar.

Of Zebulun; Eliab the son of Helon.

Of the children of Joseph:

       of Ephraim; Elishama the son of Ammihud:

       of Manasseh; Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur.

Of Benjamin; Abidan the son of Gideoni.

Of Dan; Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai.

Of Asher; Pagiel the son of Ocran.

Of Gad; Eliasaph the son of Deuel.

Of Naphtali; Ahira the son of Enan.

These are the renowned of the congregation, princes of the tribes of their fathers, heads of thousands in Israel.

And Moses and Aaron took these men and did as the Lord commanded and numbered every male from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war.


These were the numbers:

Of the tribe of Reuben, 46,500

Of the tribe of Simeon, 59,300

Of the tribe of Gad, 45,650

Of the tribe of Judah, 74,600.

Of the tribe of Issachar, 54,400

Of the tribe of Zebulun, 57,400

Of the children of Joseph, of the tribe of Ephraim, 40,500

Of the children of Joseph, of the tribe of Manasseh, 32,200

Of the tribe of Benjamin, 35,400

Of the tribe of Dan, 62,700

Of the tribe of Asher, 41,500

Of the tribe of Naphtali, 53,000

Total: 603,550

But the Levites were not numbered among them.

The Lord (to Moses): Only do not number the tribe of Levi. They shall be over the tabernacle of testimony, and over all the vessels of it, and over all things that belong to it. They shall carry the tabernacle, and all the vessels of it. They shall minister to it, and shall encamp round about the tabernacle. And when the tabernacle goes forward, the Levites shall take it down: and when the tabernacle is to be pitched, the Levites shall set it up. The Levites shall camp round about the tabernacle of testimony, that there be no wrath on the congregation of the children of Israel: and the Levites shall keep the charge of the tabernacle of testimony.

And the children of Israel did according to all that the Lord commanded Moses, so did they.

Leviticus 27

Leviticus 27 deals with the value of man and field and beast. When anyone makes a vow regarding any of these, the value is set. If the value is unclear due to its condition, the priest will evaluate it. We also see the first mention of tithe. (The tithe of the land in verse 30, and the tithe of the herd in verse 32)

Leviticus 26 – Blessings and Consequences 

Blessings for keeping my commandments: • I will give you rain in due season.

• The land shall yield her increase, and the trees of the field shall yield their fruit. You shall eat your bread to the full. You shall still have food from the previous year, when the new is harvested.

• You shall dwell in your land safely. And I will give peace in the land, and you shall lie down, and none shall make you afraid.

• I will rid evil beasts out of the land.

• The sword shall not go through your land. You shall chase your enemies, and they shall fall before you by the sword, even when they outnumber you 100:1.

• I will make you fruitful, and multiply you, and establish my covenant with you.

• I will set my tabernacle among you: and walk among you. I will be your God, and you shall be my people.

Consequences for not doing all these commandments, but breaking my covenant:

• You shall sow your seed in vain, because your enemies shall eat your harvest.

• Your strength shall be spent in vain: because your land shall not yield her increase, neither shall the trees of the land yield their fruits.

• I will appoint over you terror, consumption, and the burning ague, that shall consume the eyes, and cause sorrow of heart.

• You shall be slain by your enemies:

• They that hate you shall reign over you; and you shall flee when none pursues you.

• I will punish you seven times more for your sins.

• I will break the pride of your power; and I will make your heaven as iron, and your earth as brass:

• I will bring seven times more plagues on you according to your sins.

• I will also send wild beasts among you, which shall rob you of your children, and destroy your cattle, and make you few in number; and your high ways shall be desolate.

If you still will not be reformed by me by these things, I will punish you seven times more for your sins.

• I will bring a sword on you, that shall avenge the quarrel of my covenant:

• When you are gathered together within your cities, I will send the pestilence among you

• You shall be delivered into the hand of the enemy.

• You shall eat and not be satisfied.

• If you will walk contrary to me; Then I will walk contrary to you also in fury;

• You shall eat the flesh of your sons and your daughters.

• I will destroy your high places, and cut down your images, and cast your carcases on the carcases of your idols, and my soul shall abhor you.

• I will make your cities waste, and bring your sanctuaries to desolation, and I will not smell the savor of your sweet odors.

• I will bring the land into desolation: and your enemies which dwell therein shall be astonished at it.

• I will scatter you among the heathen, and will draw out a sword after you: and your land shall be desolate, and your cities waste.

• Then shall the land enjoy her sabbaths, as long as it lies desolate, and you be in your enemies’ land; even then shall the land rest, and enjoy her sabbaths. As long as it lies desolate it shall rest; because it did not rest in your sabbaths, when you dwell on it.

• On them that are left alive of you I will send a faintness into their hearts in the lands of their enemies; and the sound of a shaken leaf shall chase them; and they shall flee, as fleeing from a sword; and they shall fall when none pursues. And they shall fall one upon another, as it were before a sword, when none pursues: and you shall have no power to stand before your enemies. And you shall perish among the heathen, and the land of your enemies shall eat you up. And they that are left of you shall pine away in their iniquity in your enemies’ lands; and also in the iniquities of their fathers shall they pine away with them.

If they confess their iniquity, and that they have walked contrary to me

If their uncircumcised hearts are humbled, and

If they accept the punishment of their iniquity:

Then I will remember my covenant with Jacob, and Isaac, and Abraham will I remember; and

I will remember the land.

These are the statutes and judgments and laws, which the Lord made between him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses.

Leviticus 25 – Blessings and Consequences 

In Leviticus 25, we learn about the land’s sabbath, the year of jubilee and the kinsman redeemer. In the book of Ruth, Boaz is the kinsman redeemer.

The Lord (to Moses in mount Sinai) Speak to the children of Israel:

The Land’s Sabbath

When you come into the land which I give you, then the land shall keep a sabbath to the Lord. Sow your field and prune your vineyard and gather the harvest for six years. The seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest for the land. You shall neither sow your field nor prune your vineyard. That which grows of its own accord you shall not reap.

The Year of Jubilee

You shall number seven sabbaths of years, seven times seven years; forty and nine years. Then you shall cause the trumpet of the jubilee to sound throughout all your land on the tenth day of the seventh month, on the day of atonement. The fiftieth year shall be set apart as holy. You shall proclaim liberty throughout all the land to all the inhabitants: it shall be a jubilee for you; in the year of jubilee, you shall return every man to his possession (land), and you shall return every man (sold as a slave) to his family. A jubilee shall be that fiftieth year: you shall not sow, nor reap that which grows of itself, nor gather the grapes of your undressed vine.

What shall we eat the seventh year when we shall not sow nor gather? I will command my blessing on you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit for three years. And you shall sow the eighth year, and eat of old fruit until the ninth year; until her fruits comes in you shall eat of the old store.

In the year of jubilee, every man shall return to his possession, the land of his fathers. The land shall not be sold for ever.

Specific details and situations are addressed regarding the year of jubilee.

Kinsman Redeemer

Another can redeem the land or redeem the person:

1) must be near of kin of his family

2) must be able

3) must be willing

Leviticus 24 – Eye for an Eye

In Leviticus 24 we learned about the continual light, the holy bread and the law of “an eye for an eye.”


The Lord (to Moses, saying): Command the children of Israel:

Continual Light: Bring pure oil olive to cause the lamps on the pure candlestick to burn before the Lord continually, outside the veil of the testimony, from the evening until the morning before the Lord continually: it shall be a statute forever in your generations.

The Holy Bread: Take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes and set them in two rows, six on a row, on the pure table before the Lord, that it may be on the bread for a memorial, even an offering made by fire unto the Lord. Every sabbath he shall set it in order before the Lord continually. And it shall be Aaron’s and his sons’; and they shall eat it in the holy place: for it is most holy to him of the offerings of the Lord made by fire by a perpetual statute, an everlasting covenant.

Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan, had a son whose father was an Egyptian. The son strove together with a man of Israel in the camp. The son blasphemed the name of the Lord and cursed.

The people brought him to Moses.

They put him in ward that the mind of the Lord might be shown to them.

The Lord (to Moses): Bring him that has cursed outside the camp; and let all that heard him lay their hands on his head, and let all the congregation stone him.

Tell the children of Israel:

Whoever curses his God shall bear his sin. He that blasphemes the name of the Lord, he shall be put to death, and all the congregation shall stone him: whether he is a foreigner or born in the land.

He that kills any man shall be put to death.

He that kills a beast shall make it good; beast for beast.

If a man cause a blemish in his neighbor; as he has done, so it shall be done to him; breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth: as he has caused a blemish in a man, so shall it be done to him.

One manner of law for one of your own country as well as for the foreigner: for I am the Lord your God.

Moses (to the children of Israel): Bring him that cursed outside of the camp and stone him with stones.

And the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses.

Leviticus 23 – Seven Annual Feasts 

The gospels tell of Jesus attending feasts. In Leviticus 23, God gives instructions for seven annual feasts. Three of these feasts are mandatory. At these feasts, all males must present themselves before the Lord. No one shall appear empty- handed. (Exodus 23:14-17)

Feasts of the Lord:

Passover– First month, fourteenth day at evening

Feast of Unleavened Bread – First month, Days 15-21.

Mandatory feast. All males must present themselves before the Lord. No one shall appear empty- handed. (Exodus 23:14-15)

Seven days you must eat unleavened bread. The first day and the seventh day are a holy convocation: You shall do no work in them.

Feast of Firstfruits (Feast of Harvest) – Mandatory Feast. All males must present themselves before the Lord. No one shall appear empty- handed. (Exodus 23:14,16)

When you reap the harvest of the land, then you shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest to the priest. On the day after the sabbath, the priest shall wave the sheaf before the Lord. An offering is made.

You shall bring the firstfruits of your land into the house of the Lord your God. (Exodus 23:19)

God reminds the children of Israel to remember the poor as they harvest their fields: And when you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not harvest the corners of your field when you reap, neither shall you glean the field after your harvest: you shall the gleaning for the poor and the stranger… (vs 22)

Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) – Seven sabbaths shall be counted: The day after the seventh sabbath shall number fifty days; It is a holy convocation to you: you shall do no work:

Feast of Trumpets – first day of the seventh month, you shall have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, a holy convocation. You shall do no work

Day of Atonement – Seventh month, tenth day – It shall be a holy convocation to you; you shall do no work. In the ninth day of the month at evening, from evening to evening, you shall celebrate your sabbath.

Feast of Tabernacles (Feast of Booths, Feast of Ingathering) – seventh month, fifteenth day – Mandatory feast – All males must present themselves before the Lord. No one shall appear empty- handed. (Exodus 23:14,17)

 A seven day feast. The first day and the eighth day shall be a sabbath, a day of complete rest.

Leviticus 20 – Consequences of Sin 

These will be stoned: 
• Anyone who sacrifices his child to Molech, a false god of the Canaanites

• A man or woman who has a familiar spirit or is a wizard

I will set my face against that soul and will cut him off from his people:

• Any person of the land who turns the blind eye (when a man sacrifices his child to Molech) and does not kill him.

• All who commit idolatry with Molech

• The soul that turns to those who have familiar spirits and to wizards, to idolize them

These shall be put to death; their blood is on their own hands: 
• Everyone who curses his father or mother

• The man who commits adultery with another man’s wife, his neighbor’s wife. Both the man and the woman shall be put to death.

• The man who lies with his father’s wife

• A man who lies with his daughter-in-law

• A man who lies with another man as he lies with a woman, they have committed an abomination: (homosexuality)

• A man who has sex with a wife and her mother, it is wickedness: All three shall be burned with fire

• A man who lies sexually with a beast. You shall kill the man and the beast.

• A woman who lies down sexually for any beast. You shall kill the woman and the beast.

These shall be childless: 
• A man who takes his uncle’s wife

• A man who takes his brother’s wife

Therefore, sanctify yourselves, and be holy: for I am the Lord your God.  

God’s Protection of the Laborer

You shall not keep the wages of him that is hired until the morning. (Leviticus 19:13) 

We see this law practiced in the parable of “The Laborers in the Vineyard” found in Matthew 20:1-16. The laborers line up at the end of the day to receive their pay.

This law is listed with others that provide for the poor. If a man is poor and living day to day, he needs his wages promptly to provide for his needs and his family’s needs.

The Laborers in the Vineyard

The kingdom of heaven is like a man that is an householder, who went out early in the morning to hire laborers for his vineyard. And when he had agreed with the laborers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard.

And he went out about 9am, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace,

The lord of the vineyard: You go also into the vineyard, and whatever is right I will pay you.

And they went into the vineyard.

The lord of the vineyard went out about noon and 3pm, and did likewise.

He went out at 5pm, and found others standing idle.

The lord of the vineyard: Why do you stand here all the day idle?

The men: Because no man has hired us.

The lord of the vineyard: You go also into the vineyard; and you will receive whatever is right.

Evening was come.

The lord of the vineyard (to his steward): Call the laborers, and give them their hire, beginning from the last to the first.

And when the laborers came that were hired about 5pm, each man received a penny.

But when the laborers came that were hired at 6am, they supposed that they should have received more; and they each likewise received a penny. And when they had received it, they murmured against the goodman of the house.

Those hired early in the morning: These last have worked only one hour, and you have made them equal to us, who have borne the burden and heat of the day.  

The lord of the vineyard: Friend, I did you no wrong: didn’t you agree with me to work for a penny? Take that which yours, and go your way: I will give to this last, even as I gave to you. Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with my own money? Are you angry, because I am good?

So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few chosen.

God’s Welfare System

In Leviticus 19 the Lord provided for the poor.  

When you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not wholly reap the corners of your field, neither shall you gather the gleanings of your harvest. And you shall not glean your vineyard, neither shall you gather every grape of your vineyard; you shall leave them for the poor and the stranger: I am the Lord your God. (Leviticus 19:9-10)

The workers in the field did not harvest the corners of the field. They did not go through the field a second time, harvesting what they missed the first time. If they dropped some, they did not pick it up. The poor could come to the field and glean the field. They picked what was missed by the workers. They picked up what the workers had dropped. And they harvested the corners of the field.

This law provided for Ruth and Naomi when they returned to Bethlehem from Maob with nothing.

Naomi and Ruth the Moabitess, her daughter in law, with her, returned out of the country of Moab: and they came to Bethlehem in the beginning of barley harvest… Ruth said to Naomi, Let me go to the field, and glean ears of corn… And Naomi said to her, Go, my daughter. And she went and gleaned in the field after the reapers. (Ruth 1:22, 2:2-3)

The servant that was set over the reapers told Boaz… she came, and has continued even from the morning until now… Boaz instructed his men to… let some of the handfuls fall on purpose for her, and leave them, that she may glean them. Ruth gleaned in the field until evening, and beat out that she had gleaned: and it was about an ephah (bushel) of barley. (Ruth 2:6-7,16-17)

In God’s welfare system, the poor worked for what they got. In this way, the poor were able to maintain their dignity.